Click for Frames mode / Index DPs stuff

INDEX (frame mode)
filters. Animation curtsey of Artem Visual Effects
Depth of field tables curtsey of Cooke Optics

http://www.cinematography.net/default.htm Good tech info site

UK Sun tables

Maximum height of the sun at noon (London: 51deg N)

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

19

27

36

50

59

63

61

54

43

31

22

17

Sunrise and Sunset positions (North or South of Due East/West):

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

34S

21S

6S

16N

30N

37N

34N

22N

5N

14S

29S

37S

 

 

links: see sunPATH from Wide Screen Software US (818) 764-3639 for altitude/azimuth bearings for anywhere in the world on a specific day

Colour temperature tables:

Source (assume -10 K for each 1 volt drop in supply)

Kelvin

Mireds (1/Kelvin)

Domestic Tungsten

2900

345

Photographic incandescent or Halogen Tungsten

3200

312

Photoflood or 3200 source + 1/8 CTB

3400

294

3200 source + ¼ CTB

3600

278

3200 source + ½ CTB

4100

245

3200 source + full CTB

5550

182

Dawn or Dusk

2000

500

Sunrise + 1 hour

3500

285

Early morning and late afternoon

4500

230

UK Summer (!)

5500

180

Blue/white sky

6500

155

Light shade (summer) / overcast

7000

140

Typical shade (summer)

8000

125

Hazy sunlight

9000

110

Summer sky

30,000 +

33 -

 

 Lens Filters: see Filters

 

 

Camera/projector speed/time: time taken till run out = footage/(3.75 x fps) minutes {35mm}

Camera/projector speed/time: time taken till run out = footage/(1.5 x fps) min. {16mm/super 16mm}

Projection: Sound displacement

format

Magnetic

Optical

70mm

-23 frames

 

35mm

-28 frames

+21 frames

16mm

+28 frames

+26 frames

Super 8

18 frames

22 frames

8mm

56 frames

 

 Note: the film should be threaded one frame less for every 12 metres the viewer is from the speakers.

 

Shooting/playback length:

Format

8mm

(80 f/ft)

Super 8

(72 f/ft)

16mm

(40 frames/ft)

35mm

(16 f/ft)

All formats

Frames

fps

18

24

18

24

18

24

25

24

25

18

24

25

1sec

2.7"

3.6"

3"

4"

51/2"

7"

71/2"

18"

18.75'

18f

24f

25f

1min

13ft

18ft

15'

20'

27'

36'

371/2'

90'

94'

1080

1440

1500

10min

135'

180'

150'

200'

270'

360'

375'

900'

937'

 

 

 

 

running time:

 

8mm

Super 8

16mm

35mm

fps

18

24

18

24

18

24

25fps

24fps

25fps

100'

7'24

5'33

6'40

5'

3'42

2'46

2'40

1'6

64"

400'

 

 

 

20'

14'48

11'

10'40

4'26

4'16

1000'

 

 

 

 

 

27'40

26'40

11'6

10'40

1600'

 

 

106'

80'

59'16

44'27

n/a

 

n/a

 

Video tape formats

Format

Signal

LinearTape speed /sec

Head tape speed

Tape type

Tape width

Max recording

Typical user

VHS

A-Cmps

23.39mm

4.85m/s

Cb/chO2

12.65mm

240 min

O c

SVHS

Y-C

23.39mm

4.85m/s

CbmO

12.65mm

180 min

CcON

Betacam

A-Cmpn

101.51m

5.75m/s

CbmO

12.65mm

110 min

News

Beta SP

A-Cmpn

101.51m

5.75m/s

Metal P

12.65mm

110 min

C B N

Digi Beta

Cmpn D
2:1 compression

96.7m

19.08m/s

Metal P

12.65mm

124 min

C B P

SX

Cmpn D

59.575mm

19.01m/s

Metal P

12.65mm

184 min

C N

D1

Cmpn D

286.9mm

35.34m/s

CbmO

19.01mm

94 min

P

D2

Cmps D

131.7mm

30.m/s

Metal P

19.01mm

208 min

B

D3

Cmps D

83.2mm

23.88m/s

Metal P

12.65mm

245 min

B N

D5

Cmpn D

167.2mm

n/a

Metal P

12.65mm

123 min

P

Digital-S

Cmpn D
4:2:2 1.6:1 compression

57.8mm

14.5m/s

Metal P

12.65mm

105 min

C B N

DV

mini DV

Cmpn D
4:2:1
5:1 compression
download

18.831mm

10.2m/s

Metal e

6.35 mm

270 min

63 min

C c N

C c N

digital 8 Cmpn D       8 mm 60 min
c

DVCAM

Cmpn D
4:4:1
3.3:1 compression

28.246mm

10.2m/s

Metal e

6.35 mm

184 min

C N

DVCPRO

Cmpn D
4:2:2
3.3:1 compression

33.8mm

10.2m/s

Metal P

6.35 mm

123 min

C N

DVCPRO50 Cmpn D
4:2:2
1.6:1 compression
          C B N
HDVcam & GR HD1 (JVC)

D (mpg4)
8:1 compression
GR HD1 NTSC only

      6.35 mm   c C
analogue high-definition A (discontinued)            
high-definition 1920x1080
24fps RGB
           
               

MII (M2)

A-Cmpn

66.295mm

5.9m/s

Metal P

12.65mm

97 min

C B

1 inch [10]

A-Cmps

239.8mm

21.39m/s

CbmO

25.4 mm

191 min

B Pedit

Hi-8

Y-C

20.05mm

8.54m/s

Metal P/e

8 mm

90 min

CcO N

Hi-band U-matic

A-Cmps

95.3mm

8.45m/s

CbmO

19 mm

60 min

C O N

SP Hi-Band U-matic

A-Cmps

95.3mm

8.45m/s

CbmO

19 mm

60 min

C O N

Lo-band U-matic

A-Cmps

95.3mm

8.45m/s

CbmO

19 mm

60 min

C O

Video 8 A-Cmps 20.05mm 3.18m/s Metal P 8 mm 90 min c
D-VHS JVC/Sony next-generation VCR technology for the digital age. MPEG 2.
3 recording modes, based on a 420min tape HS, STD and LS. LS is split into four further catagories LS2...LS7. LS2 is DVD Quality & LS5 is VHS Quality. HS mode is used for HDTV signals. see JVC HM-DH30000 D-VHS Recorder
 

recording
time

Tape Speed Net Data Rate     420min  

D-VHS HS

3.5 hrs

33.33 mm/s 28.2 Mbps        
D-VHS STD 7 hrs 16.67 mm/s 14.1 Mbps        
D-VHS LS2 14 hrs 8.33 mm/s 7.0 Mbps        
D-VHS LS3 21 hrs 5.67 mm/s 4.7 Mbps        
D-VHS LS5 35 hrs 3.33 mm/s 2.8 Mbps        
D-VHS LS7 49 hrs 2.38 mm/s 2.0 Mbps        
DVD
(is not a tape format!)
is considered 4:2:0, though actually 4:1:1 would be more correct. The difference between DVD and DV formats is that the chrominance sampling is subsampled vertically rather than horizontally. It's still important to have a 4:2:2 source though, because when you compress to DVD you compound the subsampling resulting in an even lower chroma resolution
               

Signal:: A = Analogue | Cmps = Composite.| Cmpn = Component.| D = Digital

Typical user:: c = consumer.| C = Corporate.| O = offline.| B = Broadcast.| N = news.| P = top-end post production.

Tape types: CbmO = Cobalt modified oxide.| ChO2 = Chrome Dioxide.| Metal Particle | Metal evaporated.

[10] Obsolete reel to reel recorder. 1975-late 80's broadcast/archive standard, in use until advent of DigiBeta.

 

A simple qualative guide is (within a few %):
DVCPRO50=DigitalS
DVCPRO=DVCam=miniDV (mini/consumer DV is capable of same quality picture, however the lens, CCD and robustness of the tape will degrade the picture). All are better than BetaSP in tests, but subjectivly (and probably because of lenses and compression algorythm) sometimes appear worse. The 5:1 compression of these formats mean close-ups (talking heads) and moving images look good, often as good as DVCPRO50, DigitalS or better, however extremly detailed or complex scenes yield visibly, though not strongly, impaired video. Using the composite/Y-C output of these cameras will also degrade the picture (to BetaSP or worse) and so is not recomended to use composite/Y-C as an edit source if a digital output is avaliable.

There is/was a useful comparison of formats in May99 issue www.dv.com

physical tape dimensions:

In 1998 Film definition was approx 4 times that of standard TV and twice that of High definition TV.
More recently with film scanning techniques (shooting on film and DI, digital intermediate, for effects work a comparison is made grain size v scanning DPI (dots or pixels per inch, typically of an open gate 35mm image). Scanning is variously 1k, 2k or 4k although final projection is usually 2k or HD. Some tests have put recent (2004) Kodak (presumably slow) stocks at an equivalent of 6K. But you can't really compare static pixel locations with random film grain. Also random digital noise occurs in digital projectors, and this is akin to grain on film.

Computer Screen / Video resolutions and comparative film resolutions and aspect ratios

 

Pixel ratio

Aspect ratio

Resolutions Aspect Ratio....

  (not square !)   1K 2K 4K

CGA (computer screen.....

3x4 = 1.33

 

   

VGA

640 x 480

1.33

 

   

SVGA

800 x 600

1.33

 

   

XGA

1024 x 768

1.33

approx here ?

   

SXGA

1365 x 1024

1.33

approx here ? [6]

 
DV -mini DV etc (video...... 720 x 488 1.33 or 1.66 [3]      
VCD ntsc (44.1kHz-mpeg1) 352 x 240 1.33      
VCD pal (44.1kHz-mpeg1) 352 x 288 1.33      
SuperVCD ntsc 480 x 480 1.33 or 1.66      
SuperVCD pal (mpeg2) 480 x 576 1.33 or 1.66      
Dvix (48khz audio mpeg4) [8] 640x480 [7] any      
GR HD1 (JVC) NTSC only   1.66      
DVD   1.33 or 1.66      
4k DCI native 4096 x 2160 1.90:1 (256:135)     here ?
4K DCI CinemaScope 4096 × 1716 2.39:1      
4K DCI flat 3996 × 2160 1.85:1      
UHDTV 3840 x 2160 16:9      

high-definition (HD)

1920 x 1080

1.66

 

approx here ?  
D-1 (the standard for digital) 720 x 486 1.33      
D-1 Standard Academy mask [1] 720 x 350        
D-1 Standard Anamorphic mask [2] 720 x 274        

Full Camera Aperture

1.33

1024x768

2048x1536 4096x3072 [4]

Academy Full Frame

1.37

914x666

1828x1332 3656x2664
Academy Projection 16x9 = 1.66 914x550 1828x1102 [5] 3656x2202
Academy Projection 1.85 914x494 1828x988 3656x1976
Anamorphic Pre-squeezed image 1.18 914x774 1828x1550 3656x3098
Un squeezed image 2.35 914x388 1828x778 3656x1556

[1] Using the D-1 standard of 720 x 486, Standard Academy Camera Aperture will utilize 720 x 350 of the avaliable 720 x 486.

[2] Anamorphic Camera Aperture (Cinemascope, Panavision, Widescreen) will only use 720 x 274

[3] The pixel ratio remains the same irrespective of aspect ratio.

[4] eg slow speed stock 35mm
[5] approx S16mm

[6] you can't really compare square pixels with random film grain of the same size, the latter is much less obtrusive
[7] (recommended)
[8] mpeg4 (Dvix) is a completly software compression system, ie requires a computer for playback and is dependent on the speed of processor. mpeg 1 and 2 have both software and hardware impliementations (including some standalone DVD players).

 

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